Profile for Steven Platnick

Affiliation: NASA Civil Service
Contact: E-mail
Code 610
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Office Phone: 301-614-5636
Fax: 301-614-6307


Updates to our publications records have been put on hold until a new storage and delivery system has been put in place. As a result, this information is currently out of date and does not include the most recent publications. For a more complete listing of publications, please visit the Sciences and Exporation Directorate.

Zhang, Z., K. Meyer, S.E. Platnick, L. Oreopoulos, D. Lee, and H. Yu (2014). A novel method for estimating shortwave direct radiative effect of above-cloud aerosols using CALIOP and MODIS data Atmos. Meas. Tech, 7, 1777-1789

King, M., S. Platnick, W. P. Menzel, S. A. Ackerman, and P. Hubanks (2013). Spatial and temporal distribution of clouds observed by MODIS onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens, 51(7), 3826-3852

Meyer, K., S. Platnick, L. Oreopoulos, and D. Lee (2013). Estimating the direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols overlying marine boundary layer clouds in the southeast Atlantic using MODIS and CALIOP J. Geophy., Res.

Stubenrauch, C.J., W.B. Rossow, S. Kinne, S. Ackerman, G. Cesana, H. Chepfer, L. DiGirolamo, B. Getzewich, A. Guignard, A. Heidinger, B.C. Maddux, W.P. Menzel, P. Minnis, C. Pearl, S. Platnick, C. Poulsen, J. Riedi, S. Sun-Mack, A. Walther, D. Winker, S. Zeng, and G. Zhao (2013). Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94(7), 1031-1049

Wang, C., P. Yang, S. Platnick, A.K. Heidinger, B.A. Baum, T. Greenwald, Z. Zhang, and R.E. Holz (2013). Retrieval of Ice Cloud Properties from AIRS and MODIS Observations Based on a Fast High-Spectral-Resolution Radiative Transfer Model J. App. Met. Clim, 52, 710-726
DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-020.1

Wind, G., A.M. Da Silva, P.M. Norris, and S.E. Platnick (2013). Multi-sensor cloud retrieval simulator and remote sensing from model parameters - Part 1: Synthetic sensor radiance formulation Geoscientific Model Development, 6, 2049-2062

Eck, T. F., B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, D. M. Giles, M. A. Rivas, R. P. Singh, S. N. Tripathi, C. J. Bruegge, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, N. A. Krotkov, S. A. Carn, A. Sinyuk, O. Dubovik, A. Arola, J. S. Schafer, P. Artaxo, A. Smirnov, H. Chen, and P. Goloub (2012). Fog- and cloud-induced aerosol modification observed by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). J. Geophys. Res., 117(D07206).

Pincus, R., S. Platnick, S.A. Ackerman, R.S. Hemler, and R.J.P. Hoffman (2012). Reconciling Simulated and Observed Views of Clouds: MODIS, ISCCP, and the Limits of Instrument Simulators J. Climate, 25, 4699-4720

Jiang, J. J., H. Su, C. Zhai, S. T. Massie, M. R. Schoeberl, P. R. Colarco, S. Platnick, Y. Gu, and K.-N. Liou (2011). Influence of convection and aerosol pollution on ice cloud particle effective radius. Atmos. Chem. Phys..
doi: 10.5194/acp-11-457-2011

Zhang, Z., and S. Platnick (2011). An assessment of differences between cloud effective particle radius retrievals for marine water clouds from three MODIS spectral bands J. Geophys. Res, 116, D20215.

Coddington O., P. Pilewskie, S. Schmidt, J. Redemann, S. Platnick, W. Gore, J. Livingston, G. Wind, P. Russell, and T. Vukicevic (2010). Examining the impact of aerosols on the retrieval of cloud optical properties from passive remote sensing J. Geophy., Res., 115, D10211.

Di Girolamo L., L. Liang, and S.E. Platnick (2010). A global perspective on the plane-parallel nature of oceanic clouds J. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37.

Hong G., P. Yang, A. K. Heidinger, M. J. Pavolonis, B. A. Baum, and S.E. Platnick (2010). Detecting opaque and non-opaque tropical upper-tropospheric ice clouds: A tri-spectral technique based on the MODIS 8-12 mm window bands J. Geophy., Res., Atmos, 115, D20214.

Joiner, J., A. P. Vasilkov, P.K. Bhartia, G. Wind, S.E. Platnick, and W. P. Menzel (2010). Detection of multi-layer and vertically-extended clouds using A-Train sensors Atmos. Meas. Tech, 3, 233-247
doi: 10.5194/amt-3-233-2010

Kindel B. C., K. Sebastian, P. Pilewskie, B. Baum, P. Yang, and S. Platnick (2010). Observations and modeling of cirrus shortwave spectral albedo during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment J. Geophys., Res, 115, D00J18.

King M.D., S. Platnick, G. Wind, G. T. Arnold, and R. T. Dominguez (2010). Remote sensing of the radiative and microphysical properties of clouds during TC4: Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR J. Geophys. Res., D00J07, 115.

Maddux B. C. , S. A. Ackerman, and S.E. Platnick (2010). Viewing geometry dependencies in MODIS cloud products J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 27(9), 1519-1528

Meyer K., and S.E. Platnick (2010). Utilizing the MODIS 1.38 um channel for cirrus cloud optical thickness rerievals: Algorithm and and retrieval uncertaines J. Geophys. Res, 115.

Schmidt K. S., P. Pilewskie, B. Mayer, M. Wendisch, B. Kindel, S. Platnick, M.D. King, G. Wind, G. T. Arnold, L. Tian, G. Heymsfield, and H. Kalesse (2010). Apparent absorption of solar spectral irradiance in heterogeneous ice clouds J. Geophys. Res., D00J22, 115.

Toon O. B., D. Starr, E. J. Jensen, P. A. Newman, S.E. Platnick, M. R. Schoeberl, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wolsy, M. J. Kurylo, H. Maring, K. W. Jucks, M. S. Craig, M. F. Vasques, L. Pfister, K. H. Rosenlof, H.B. Selkirk, P. Colarco, S. R. Kawa, G. Mace, P. Minnis, and K.E. Pickering (2010). Planning, implementation, and first results of the Tropical Composition Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) J. Geophys. Res..

Toon O. B. , D. Starr, E. Jensen, P. Newman, S.E. Platnick, M. Schoeberl, P. Wennberg, S. Wofsy, M. Kurylo, H. Maring, K. Jucks, M. Craig, M. Vasquez, L. Pfister, K. Rosenlof, H. Selkirk, P. Colarco, R. Kawa, G. G. Mace, P. Minnis, and K. Pickering (2010). Planning and implementation of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) J. Geophys. Res, 115, D00J04.

Wind G., S. Platnick, M.D. King, P.A. Hubanks, M. J. Pavolonis, A. K. Heidinger, P. Yang, and B. A. Baum (2010). Multilayer cloud detection with the MODIS near-infrared water vapor absorption band J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49(11), 2315-2333

Zhang Z., S. Platnick, P. Yang, A. K. Heidinger, and J. M. Comstock (2010). Effects of ice particle size vertical inhomogeneity on the passive remote sensing of ice clouds J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115.

Zinner T., G. Wind, S. Platnick, and A. Ackerman (2010). Testing remote sensing of artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3D structure on effective radius retrievals Atmos. Chem. Phys., Disc, 10, 9535-9549

Gultepe I., G. Pearson, J. A. Milbrandt, B. Hansen, S. Platnick, P. Taylor, M. Gordon, J. P. Oakley, and S. G. Cober (2009). The Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) Field Project Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90(3), 341-359

Jensen E. J., P. Lawson, B. Baker, B. Pilson, Q. Mo, A. J. Heymsfield, A. Bansemer, T. P. Bui, M. McGill, D. Hlavka, G. Heymsfield, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, and S. Tanelli (2009). On the importance of small ice crystals in tropical anvil cirrus Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5519-5537

Joiner J., M. R. Schoeberl, A. P. Vasilkov, L. Oreopoulos, S. Platnick, N. J. Livesey, and P. F. Levelt (2009). Accurate satellite-derived estimates of the tropospheric ozone impact on the global radiation budget Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9(13), 4447-4465

Lee J., P. Yang, A. Dessler, B. -C. Gao, and S. Platnick (2009). Distribution and radiative forcing of tropical thin cirrus clouds J. Atmos. Sci., 3721-3731

Liang L., L. DiGirolamo, and S. Platnick (2009). View-angle consistency in reflectance, optical depth, and spherical albedo of marine water clouds off the coast of California through MISR-MODIS fusion Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(L09811).

Liu H., J. H. Crawford, D. B. Considine, S. Platnick, P. M. Norris, B.N. Duncan, R. B. Pierce, G. Chen, and R. M. Yantosca (2009). Sensitivity of photolysis frequencies and key tropospheric oxidants in a global model to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties J. Geophys. Res., 114(D10305).

Meskhidze N., L.A. Remer, S. Platnick, R. N. Juarez, A. M. Lichtenberger, and A. Aiyyer (2009). Exploring the differences in cloud properties observed by the Terra and Aqua MODIS sensor Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9(10), 3461-3475

Oreopoulos L., S. Platnick, G. Hong, P. Yang, and R.F. Cahalan (2009). The shortwave radiative forcing bias of liquid and ice clouds from MODIS observations Atmos. Chem. Phys, 9(16), 5865-5875

Oreopoulos L., S.E. Platnick, G. Hong, P. Yang, and R.F. Cahalan (2009). The Shortwave Radiative Forcing Bias of Homogeneous Liquid and Ice Clouds Observed by MODIS [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation (IRS 2008 Proceedings)

Platnick S., G. Wind, M.D. King, R. E. Holz, S. A. Ackerman, and F. W. Nagle (2009). Comparison of the MODIS Collection 5 Multilayer Cloud Detection Product with CALIPSO Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation (Proceedings of the IRS/IAMAS), 1100, 416-419

Vasilkov A. P., J. Joiner, L. Oreopoulos, J.F. Gleason, P. Veefkind, E. Bucsela, E.A. Celarier, R. J. D. Spurr, and S. Platnick (2009). Impact of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide on the regional radiation budget Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 6389-6400.

Vasilkov A.P., J. Joiner, L. Oreopoulos, J.F. Gleason, P. Veefkind, E. Bucsela, E.A. Celarier, R.J.D. Spurr, and S.E. Platnick (2009). Impact of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide on the regional radiation budget. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6389-6400

Waliser, D.E., Frank Li, C. Woods, R. Austin, J. Bacmeister, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J.Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S.E. Platnick, W.B. Rossow, G. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.K. Tao, A. Tompkins, D. Vane, C. Walker, and D.L. Wu (2009). Cloud Ice: A Climate Model Challenge With Signs and Expectations of Progress J. Geophys. Res, 114, D00A21.

Wilcox E.M., Harshvardhan, and S. Platnick (2009). Estimate of the impact of absorbing aerosol over cloud on the MODIS retrievals of cloud optical thickness and effective radius using two independent retrievals of liquid water path J. Geophys. Res., D05210, 114.

Zhang Z., P. Yang, G. Kattawar, J. Riedi, L. C. Labonnote, B. Baum, S. Platnick, and H. -L. Huang (2009). Influence of ice particle model on satellite ice cloud retrieval: Lessons learned from MODIS and POLDER cloud product comparison Atmos. Chem. Phys, 9(18), 7115-7129

Jiang, J. H., H. Su, M. R. Schoeberl, S. T. Massie, P. R. Colarco , S. Platnick, and N. Livesey (2008). Clean and polluted clouds: Relationships among pollution, ice clouds, and precipitation in South America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35.
doi: 10.1029/2008GL034631

Moody E.G., M.D. King, C. B. Schaaf, and S. Platnick (2008). MODIS-derived spatially complete surface albedo products: Spatial and temporal pixel distribution and zonal averages J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 2879-2894

Oreopoulos L., and S. Platnick (2008). The radiative susceptibility of cloudy atmospheres to droplet number perturbations: 2. Global analysis from MODIS J. Geophys. Res., 113(D14S21).

Platnick S., and J. M. Fontenla (2008). Model calculations of solar spectral irradiance in the 3.7-μm band for Earth remote sensing applications J. Appl. Meteor. & Climatol, 47(1), 124-134

Platnick S., and L. Oreopoulos (2008). The radiative susceptibility of cloudy atmospheres to droplet number perturbations: 1. Theoretical analysis and examples from MODIS J. Geophys. Res., 113(D14S20).

Chiriaco M., H. Chepfer, P. Minnis, M. Haeffelin, S. Platnick, D. Baumgardner, P. Dubuisson, M. McGill, V. Noel, J. Pelon, D. Spangenberg, S. Sun-Mack, and G. Wind (2007). Comparison of CALIPSO-like, LaRC and MODIS retrievals of ice cloud properties over SIRTA in France and Florida during CRYSTAL-FACE J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46, 249-272

Hong G., P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, M.D. King, and S. Platnick (2007). High cloud properties from three years of MODIS Terra and Aqua collection-4 data over the tropics J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46, 1840-1856

Hong G., P. Yang, H. L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, and S. Platnick (2007). The sensitivity of ice cloud optical and microphysical passive satellite retrievals to cloud geometrical thickness IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 45, 1315-1323

Moody E.G., M.D. King, C. B. Schaaf, D. K. Hall, and S. Platnick (2007). Northern Hemisphere five-year average (2000-2004) spectral albedos of surfaces in the presence of snow: Statistics computed from Terra MODIS land products Remote Sens. Environ., 111, 337-345

Oreopoulos L., R. Cahalan, and S. Platnick (2007). The plane-parallel albedo bias of liquid clouds from MODIS observations J. Climate, 20, 5114-5125

Platnick S. (2007). Ship Tracks. (66-70). In Our Changing Planet: The View from Space, M. D. King, C. L. Parkinson, K. C. Partington, and R. G. Williams, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Schmidt K. S., P. Pilewskie, S. Platnick, G. Wind, P. Yang, and M. Wendisch (2007). Comparing irradiance fields derived from MAS cirrus cloud retrievals with SSFR measurements Journal of Geophysical Research, 112.

Yang P., L. Zhang, G. Hong, S. L. Nasiri, B. A. Baum, H. L. Huang, M.D. King, and S. Platnick (2007). Differences between collection 4 and 5 MODIS ice cloud optical/microphysical products and their impact on radiative forcing simulations IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, 45, 2886-2899

Baum B., and S. Platnick (2006). Introduction to MODIS cloud products. Earth Science Satellite Remote Sensing: Science and instruments. (74-91). J. J. Qu, W. Gao, M. Kafatos, R. E. Murphy, and V. V. Salomonson, Eds., Tsinghua University Press (Beijing) and Springer-Verlag (Berlin).

Lee J., P. Yang, A. E. Dessler, B. A. Baum, and S. Platnick (2006). The influence of thermodynamic phase on the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud microphysical and optical properties in the visible and near-infrared region IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 3, 287-291

Liu H., J. H. Crawford, R. B. Pierce, P. Norris, S. Platnick, G. Chen, J. A. Logan, R. M. Yantosca, M. J. Evans, C. Kittaka, Y. Feng, and X. Tie (2006). Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model J. Geophys. Res., D20303, 111.

Marshak A., S. Platnick, T. Varnai, G. Wen, and R.F. Cahalan (2006). Impact of 3D radiative effects on satellite retrievals of cloud droplet sizes J. Geophys. Res., DO9207, 111.

Baum B. A., P. Yang, A. J. Heymsfield, S. Platnick, M.D. King, Y. X. Hu, and S. T. Bedka (2005). Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. 2: Narrowband models J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1896-1911

Mace G. G., Y. Zhang, S. Platnick, M.D. King, P. Minnis, and P. Yang (2005). Evaluation of cirrus cloud properties derived from MODIS data using cloud properties derived from ground-based observations collected at the ARM SGP site J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 221-240

Moody E.G., M.D. King, S. Platnick, C. B. Schaaf, and F. Gao (2005). Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-Added datasets derived from Terra MODIS land products IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 43, 144-158

King M.D., S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, and K. N. Liou (2004). Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness and effective radius in the Arctic: Application of airborne multispectral MAS data J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 857-875

McFarquhar G. M., S. Platnick, L. DiGirolamo, H. Wang, G. Wind, and G. Zhao (2004). In situ and remote sensing measurements of clouds and aerosols over the Indian Ocean Geophy. Res. Lett., 31.

Wei H., P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H. -L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, and L. Strow (2004). Retrieval of ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 42, 2254-2266

Gatebe C.K., M.D. King, S. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid (2003). Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa J. Geophys. Res., 8489, 108.

King M.D., W. P. Menzel, Y.J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, B. -C. Gao, S. Platnick, S. A. Ackerman, L.A. Remer, R. Pincus, and P.A. Hubanks (2003). Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and humidity from MODIS IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41, 442-458

King M.D., S. Platnick, C. C. Moeller, H. E. Revercomb, and D. A. Chu (2003). Remote sensing of smoke, land and clouds from the NASA ER-2 during SAFARI 2000 J. Geophys. Res. (D13), 8502, 108.

Parkinson C. L., M. T. Chahine, and S. Platnick (2003). Minutes of the Aqua Science Working Group Meeting The Earth Observer (July/August), 15, 3-18

Pinker R. T., H. Wang, M.D. King, and S. Platnick (2003). First use of MODIS data to cross-calibrate with GEWEX/SRB data sets GEWEX News, No.4, November 2003, 13

Platnick S., M.D. King, S. A. Ackerman, W. P. Menzel, B. A. Baum, J. C. Riedi, and R. A. Frey (2003). The MODIS cloud products: Algorithms and examples from Terra IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2), 41, 459-473

Swap R. J., H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, M.D. King, S. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes (2003). Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) J. Geophys. Res. (D13), 8465, 108.

Swap R. J., H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, J. Haywood, M. C. Helmlinger, C. Hely, P. V. Hobbs, B. N. Holben, J. Ji, M.D. King, T. Landmann, W. Maenhaut, L. Otter, B. Pak, S. J. Piketh, S. Platnick, J. Privette, D. Roy, A. M. Thompson, D. Ward, and R. Yokelson (2002). The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the dry season field campaign South African Journal of Science, 98, 125-130

Yang P., B. C. Gao, W.J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, S.E. Platnick, H. L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. Winker, S.C. Tsay, and S. K. Park (2002). Inherent amd apparent scattering properties of coated or uncoated spheres embedded in an absorbing host medium Appl. Opt., 41, 2740-2759

Platnick S. (2001). Approximations for horizontal transport in cloud remote sensing problems J. Quant. Spectr. and Rad. Trans., 68, 75-99

Platnick S. (2001). A superposition technique for deriving photon scattering statistics in plane-parallel cloudy atmospheres J. Quant. Spectr. and Rad. Trans., 68, 57-73

Platnick S., J. Y. Li, M.D. King, H. Gerber, and P. V. Hobbs (2001). A solar reflectance method for retrieving the optical thickness and droplet size of liquid water clouds over snow and ice surfaces J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15185-15199

Coakley J. A., P. A. Durkee, K. Nielsen, J. P. Taylor, S. Platnick, B. A. Albrecht, D. Babb, F. -L. Chang, W. R. Tahnk, C. S. Bretherton, and P. V. Hobbs (2000). The appearance and disappearance of ship tracks on large spatial scales J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2765-2778

Durkee P. A., R. E. Chartier, A. Brown, E. J. Trehubenko, S. D. Rogerson, C. Skipniewicz, K. E. Nielsen, S. Platnick, and M.D. King (2000). Composite ship track characteristics J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2542-2553

Platnick S. (2000). Vertical photon transport in cloud remote sensing problems J. Geophys. Res. (D18), 105, 22919-22935

Platnick S., P. A. Durkee, K. Nielson, J. P. Taylor, S.C. Tsay, M.D. King, R. J. Ferek, P. V. Hobbs, and J. W. Rottman (2000). The role of background cloud microphysics in the radiative formation of ship tracks J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2607-2624

Taylor J. P., M. D. Glew, J. A. Coakley, W. Tahnk, S. Platnick, P. V. Hobbs, and R. J. Ferek (2000). The effects of aerosols on the radiative properties of clouds J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2656-2670

King M.D., W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S.C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, and F. G. Osterwisch (1996). Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, water vapor and surface properties J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 13, 777-794

King M.D., S.C. Tsay, and S. Platnick (1995). In situ observations of the indirect effects of aerosol on clouds. (227-248). Aerosol Forcing of Climate, R. J. Charlson and J. E. Heintzenberg, Eds., John Wiley and Sons.

Platnick S., and F. P. J. Valero (1995). A validation study of a satellite cloud retrieval during ASTEX J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2985-3001

Platnick S., and S. Twomey (1994). Remote sensing the susceptibility of cloud albedo to changes in drop concentration Atmos. Res., 34, 85-98

Platnick S., and S. Twomey (1994). Determining the susceptibility of cloud albedo to changes in droplet concentration with the advanced very high resolution radiometer J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 334-347

Valero F. P. J., S. Platnick, S. Kinne, P. Pilewskie, and A. Bucholtz (1993). Airborne brightness temperature measurements of polar winter troposphere as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment II and the effect of brightness temperature variations on the diabatic heating in the lower stratosphere Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2575-2578