Profile for Ralph Kahn

Title: Research Physical Scientist
Affiliation: NASA Civil Service
Contact: E-mail
Code 613
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Office Phone: 301-614-6193
Fax: 301-614-6307


Ralph Kahn, a Senior Research Scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, received his PhD in applied physics from Harvard University. He spent 20 years as a Research Scientist and Senior Research Scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he studied climate change on Earth and Mars, and also led the Earth & Planetary Atmospheres Research Element. Kahn is Aerosol Scientist for the NASA Earth Observing System's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument. He focuses on using MISR’s unique observations, combined with other data and numerical models, to learn about wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcano and air pollution particles, and to apply the results to regional and global climate-change questions. Kahn has lectured on Climate Change and atmospheric physics at UCLA, Caltech and many other venues, and is editor and founder of PUMAS, the on-line journal of science and math examples for pre-college education.

Web of Science publications and citation metrics can be found here.


Ph.D.               Applied Physics, Harvard University, 1980

  M.S.              Applied Physics, Harvard University, 1975

   B.S.              Physics and Geology, University of Rochester, 1973


Chin, M., T. Diehl, Q. Tan, J. M. Prospero, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, A. M. Sayer, H. Bian, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben, S. G. Howell, B. J. Huebert, N. C. Hsu, D. Kim, T. L. Kucsera, R. C. Levy, M. I. Mishchenko, X. Pan, P. K. Quinn, G. L. Schuster, D. G. Streets, S. A. Strode, O. Torres, and X.-P. Zhao (2014). Multi-decadal aerosol variations from 1980 to 2009: a perspective from observations and a global model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657-3690.

Guo, Y., B. Tian, R.A. Kahn, O.V. Kalashnikova, S. Wong, and D.E. Waliser (2014). MJO-related Atlantic Dust and Smoke Variability in MODIS and MISR Satellite Observations J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., (Submitted).

Kim, D., M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, R.A. Kahn, K. Tsigaridis, S.E. Bauer, T. Takemura, L. Pozzoli, N. Bellouin, M. Schulz, S. Peyridieu, A. Chedin, and B. Koffi (2014). Sources, sinks, and transatlantic transport of North African dust aerosol: A multi-model analysis and comparison with remote-sensing data. J. Geophys. Res., (Submitted).

Schwartz, S., L. Bengtsson, R.J. Charlson, R.A. Kahn, and H. Rodhe (2014). Earth's Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Analysis Rem. Sens. Environ. Lett., (Submitted).

Kahn, R.A. (2013). Aerosols. In E. Njoku (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Remote Sensing. Berlin: Springer:
ISBN 978-0-387-36698-2

Mallet, M., O.D. Dubovik, P.N. Nabat, F.D. Dulac, and R.A. Kahn (2013). Absorption properties of Mediterranean aerosols obtained from multi-year ground-based and satellite remote sensing observations Atmos. Chem. Phys, 13, 9195-9210

Nelson, D., M.J. Garay, R.A. Kahn, and B.A. Dunst (2013). Stereoscopic Height and Wind Retrievals for Aerosol Plumes with the MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX) Rem. Sens, 5, 4593-4628

Patadia, F., R.A. Kahn, J.A. Limbacher, S.P. Burton, R.A. Ferrare, C.A. Hostetler, and J.W. Hair (2013). Aerosol Airmass Type Mapping Over the Urban Mexico City Region From Space-based Multi-angle Imaging Atmos. Chem. Phys, 13, 9525-9541

Yu, H., L. A. Remer, R. A. Kahn, M. Chin, and Y. Zhang (2013). Satellite perspective of aerosol intercontinental transport: from qualitative tracking to quantitative characterization Atmos. Res, 124(Online), 73-100

Carboni, E., G.E. Thomas, A. Sayer, R. Siddans, C.A. Pooulsen, R.G. Grainger, C. Ahn, D. Antoine, S. Bevan, R. Braak, H. Brindley, S. DeSouza-Machado, J.L. Deuze, D. Diner, F. Ducos, W. Grey, N. Hsu, O.V. Kalashnikova, R.A. Kahn, P.R.J. North, C. Salustro, A. Smith, D. Tanre, O. Torres, and B. Veihelmann (2012). Intercomparison of desert dust optical depth from satellite measurements. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1973-2002.

Colarco, Peter, R., L. Remer, R.A. Kahn, R.C. Levy, and Ellsworth J. Welton (2012). Implications of Satellite Swath Width on Global Aerosol Optical Thickness Statistics. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 5, 2795-2820

Ichoku, C., R. Kahn, and M. Chin (2012). Satellite Contributions to the Quantitative Characterization of Biomass Burning for Climate Modeling. Atmos. Res., 111, 1-28

Kahn, R.A. (2012). Reducing the uncertainties in direct aerosol radiative forcing Surveys in Geophysics, 33, 701-721

Kahn, R., and J. Limbacher (2012). Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Plume Particle-Type Characterization from Space-Based Multi-Angle Imaging. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9459-9477

Kaskaoutis, D., R. A. Kahn, P. Gupta, A. Jayaraman, and A. Bartzokas (2012). Desert Dust Properties, Modelling, and Monitoring Adv. Meteorology, 2012(483632).

Petrenko, Mariya, R.A. Kahn, M. Chin, A. Soja, T. Kucsera, and Harshvardhan (2012). The use of satellite-measured aerosol optical depth to constrain biomass burning emissions source strength in a global aerosol model (GOCART) J. Geophy., Res, 117, D18212.

Schwartz, S.E., R.J. Charlson, R.A. Kahn, J.A. Ogren, and H. Rodhe (2012). Reply to comments on: "Why hasn't Earth warmed as much as expected?" J. Climate, 25, 2200-2204

Scollo, S., R.A. Kahn, D.L. Nelson, M. Coltelli, D.J. Diner, M.J. Garay, and V.J. Realmuto (2012). MISR observations of Etna volcanic plumes J. Geophys. Res, 117, D6.

Val Martin, M., R.A. Kahn, J.A. Logan, R. Paugam, M. Wooster, and C. Ichoku (2012). Space-based observations constraints for 1-D plume-rise models J. Geophy., Res, 117(D22).

Kahn, R.A., M. J. Garay, D. L. Nelson, R.C. Levy, M. A. Bull, D. J. Diner, J. V. Martonchik, E. G. Hanson, L. Remer, and D. Tanre (2011). Response to Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties. 3. MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET J. Quan. Spec. & Rad. Trans., 112, 901-909

Lyapustin A., Y. Wang, I. Laszlo, R. Kahn, S. Korkin, L. Remer, R. Levy, and J. Reid (2011). Multi-Angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC): Part 2. Aerosol algorithm J. Geophys. Res., 116(D03211).

Lyapustin, A., A. Smirnov, B. Holben, M. Chin, D.G. Streets, Z. Lu, R. Kahn, I. Slutsker, I. Laszlo, S. Kondragunta, D. Tanre, O. Dubovik, P. Golooub, H.-B. Chen, A. Sinyuk, Y. Wang, and S. Korkin (2011). Reduction of aerosol absorption in Beijing since 2007 from MODIS and AERONET Geophys. Res. Lett, 38, L10803.

Sessions, W.R., H.E. Fuelberg, R.A. Kahn, and D.E. Winker (2011). An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS Atmos. Chem. Phys, 11, 5719-5744

Shi, Y., J. Zhang, J.S. Reid, E.J. Hyer, T.F. Eck, B.N. Holben, and R.A. Kahn (2011). A critical examination of spatial biases between MODIS and MISR aerosol products – application for potential AERONET deployment Atmos. Meas. Tech, 2823-2836
doi: 10.5194/amt-4-2823-2011

Tian, B., D.E. Waliser, R.A. Kahn, and S. Wong (2011). Modulation of Atlantic aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation J. Geophys. Res, 116, D15108.

Bi L., P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R.A. Kahn (2010). Modeling optical properties of mineral aerosol particles by using non-symmetric hexahedra Appl. Opt., 49(3), 334-342

Chatterjee A., A. M. Michalak, R.A. Kahn, S. R. Paradise, A. J. Braverman, and C. E. Miller (2010). A Geostatistical Data Fusion Technique for Merging Remote Sensing and Ground-based Observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness J. Geophys. Res., D08201, 115.

Kahn R.A., B. J. Gaitley, M. J. Garay, D. J. Diner, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, and B. N. Holben (2010). MISR global aerosol product assessment by comparison with Aerosol Robotic Network J. Geophys. Res., 115, D23209.

Levy R.C., L.A. Remer, R.G. Kleidman, S. Mattoo, C. Ichoku, R. Kahn, and T. F. Eck (2010). Global evaluation of the Collection 5 MODIS dark-target aerosol products over land Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10399-10420

Lyapustin, A., C.K. Gatebe, R. Kahn, R. Brandt, J. Redemann, P. Russell, M.D. King, C. A. Pedersen, S. Gerland, R. Poudyal, A. Marshak, Y. Wang, C. Schaaf, D. Hall, and A. Kokhanovsky (2010). Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 campaign Atmos. Chem. Phys, 10, 4359-4375

Pierce J.R., R.A. Kahn, M.R. Davis, and J. M. Comstock (2010). Detecting thin cirrus in Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol retrievals J. Geophy. Res., 115, D08201.

Schwartz S. E., R. J. Charlson, R.A. Kahn, J. A. Obren, and H. Rodhe (2010). Why hasn’t Earth warmed as much as expected? J. Climate, 23(10), 2453-2464

Val Martin M., J. A. Logan, R. Kahn, F. -Y. Leung, D. Nelson, and D. Diner (2010). Smoke injection heights from fires in North America: analysis of 5 years of satellite observations Atm. Chem. Phys., 10(4), 1491-1510

vanDonkelaar A., R. V. Martin, M. Brauer, R. Kahn, R. Levy, C. Verduzco, and P. J. Villeneuve (2010). Global Estimates of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth: Development and Applications Environ Health Perspectives (6), 118.

Bierwirth E., M. Wendisch, A. Ehrlich, B. Hesse, M. Tesche, D. Althausen, A. Schladitz, D. Muller, S. Otto, T. Trautmann, T. Dinter, W. VonHoyningne-Huene, and R.A. Kahn (2009). Spectral surface albedo over Morocco and its impact on the radiative forcing of Saharan dust Tellus, 61B, 252-269

Chen Y., Q. Li, R. Kahn, J. T. Randerson, and D. J. Diner (2009). Quantifying aerosol direct radiative effect with MISR observations: 1. TOA albedo change by aerososl based on land surface types J. Geophys. Res., 114(D02109).

Chen Y., Q. Li, J. T. Randerson, E. A. Lyons, R.A. Kahn, D. L. Nelson, and D. J. Diner (2009). The sensitivity of CO and aerosol transport to the temporal and vertical distribution of North American boreal fire emissions Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9(17), 6559-6580

Dinter, T., W. Von Hoyningen-Huene, J.P. Burrows, A. Kokhanovsky, E. Bierwirth, M. Wendisch, D. Muler, R.A. Kahn, and M. Diouri (2009). Retrieval of aerosol optical thickness for desert conditions using MERIS observations during the SAMUM campaign Tellus, 61B, 229-238

Imhoff M. L., R. Wolfe, D. J. Diner, M. Chopping, R. Kahn, V. Salomonson, J. Gille, J. Drummond, D. Edwards, N. Loeb, B. Wielicki, M. Abrams, B. Eng, S.-C. Tsay, and K. J. Ranson (2009). An overview of Terra mission results related to the carbon cycle Geog. Compass, 3(2), 536-559

Johnson B.T., S. Christopher, J.M. Haywood, S. R. Osborne, S. McFarlane, N.C. Hsu, C. Salustro, and R. Kahn (2009). Measurements of aerosol properties from aircraft, satellite and ground-based remote sensing: A case study from the Dust and Biomass burning Experiment (DABEX) Q.J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135(641), 922-934

Kahn R., A. Petzold, M. Wendisch, E. Bierwirth, T. Dinter, M. Esselborn, M. Fiebig, B. Heese, P. Knippertz, D. Muller, A. Schladitz, and W. vonHoyningen-Huene (2009). Desert Dust Aerosol Air Mass Mapping in the Western Sahara, Using Particle Properties Derived From Space-based Multi-angle Imaging Tellus, 61B, 239-251

Kahn R.A., H. Yu, S. E. Schwartz, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L.A. Remer, D. Rind, R. Halthore, and P. DeCola (2009). Introduction, Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Mian Chin, Ralph A. Kahn, and Stephen E. Schwartz (eds.), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., USA

Kahn R.A., D. L. Nelson, M. Garay, R.C. Levy, M. A. Bull, D. J. Diner, J. V. Martonchik, S. R. Paradise, E. G. Hansen, and L. Remer (2009). MISR Aerosol product attributes, and statistical comparisons with MODIS IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 47(12), 4095-4114

Levy R., G. Leptoukh, R. Kahn, V. Zubko, A. Gopalan, and L. Remer (2009). A critical look at deriving monthly aerosol optical depth from satellite data IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., No. 9, 47(8), 2942-2956

Li Z., X. Zhao, R. Kahn, M. Mishchenko, L. Remer, K. -H. Lee, M. Wang, I. Laszlo, and T. Nakajima (2009). Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: A review and perspective Annales Geophysicae, 27(7), 2755-2770

Liu Y., R. Kahn, A. Chaloulakou, and P. Koutrakis (2009). Analysis of the impact of the forest fires in August 2007 on Athens air quality, using multi-sensor aerosol remote sensing data, meteorology, and surface observations Atmosph. Environ, 43(21), 3310-3318

Liu, Y., D. Chen, R.A. Kahn, and HE KeBin (2009). Review of the applications of Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer to air quality research Science in China, D, 132-144

Martonchik J. V., R.A. Kahn, and D. J. Diner (2009). Retrieval of Aerosol Properties over Land Using MISR Observations. (267-293). In: Kokhanovsky, A.A. and G. de Leeuw, ed., Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing Over Land. Springer, Berlin..

Mims S. R., R.A. Kahn, C. M. Moroney, B. J. Gaitley, D. L. Nelson, and M. J. Garay (2009). MISR Stereo-heights of grassland fire smoke plumes in Australia IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remt. Sens., 48(1), 25-35

Remer L.A., M. Chin, P. DeCola, G. Feingold, R. Halthore, R.A. Kahn, P. K. Quinn, D. Rind, S. E. Schwartz, D. Streets, and H. Yu (2009). Executive Summary, Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Mian Chin, Ralph A. Kahn, and Stephen E. Schwartz (eds.), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., USA

Rind D., M. Chin, G. Feingold, D. Streets, R.A. Kahn, S. E. Schwartz, and H. Yu (2009). Modeling the Effects of Aerosols on Climate: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Mian Chin, Ralph A. Kahn, and Stephen E. Schwartz (eds.), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., USA

Rind D., R.A. Kahn, M. Chin, S. E. Schwartz, L.A. Remer, G. Feingold, H. Yu, P. K. Quinn, and R. Halthorne (2009). The Way Forward: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Mian Chin, Ralph A. Kahn, and Stephen E. Schwartz (eds.), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., USA

Yu H., P. K. Quinn, G. Feingold, L.A. Remer, R.A. Kahn, M. Chin, and S. E. Schwartz (2009). Remote Sensing and In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Properties, Burdens, and Radiative Forcing, in Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Mian Chin, Ralph A. Kahn, and Stephen E. Schwartz (eds.), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., USA

Bi L., P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and R. Kahn (2008). Single-scattering Properties of Tri-axial Ellipsoidal Particles for a Size Parameter Range from the Rayleigh to Geometric-optics Regimes Appl. Opt., 48(1), 114-126

Chen W. -T., R. Kahn, D. Nelson, K. Yau, and J. Seinfeld (2008). Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to the optical and microphysical properties of biomass burning aerosols J. Geophys. Res., 113(D10203).

Dubovik O., T. Lapyonok, Y.J. Kaufman, M. Chin, P. Ginoux, R. Kahn, and A. Sinyuk (2008). Retrieving global aerosol sources from satellites using inverse modeling Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8(2), 209-250

Kahn R., Y. Chen, D. Nelson, F. -Y. Leung, Q. Li, D. Diner, and J. Logan (2008). Wildfire Smoke Injection Heights - Two perspectives from Space Geophys. Res. Lett, 35(L04809).

Kalashnikova O. V., and R.A. Kahn (2008). Mineral dust plume evolution over the Atlantic from combined MISR/MODIS aerosol retrievals J. Geophys. Res., 113(D24204).

Lallart P., R. Kahn, and D. Tanre (2008). POLDER2/ADEOSII, MISR, and MODIS/Terra Reflectance Comparisons J. Geophys. Res., 113(D14S02).

Myhre G., T. F. Berglen, M. Johnsurd, C. Holye, T. K. Berntsen, S. A. Christopher, I. S. A. Isaksen, T. A. Jones, R.A. Kahn, N. Lowb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, and K. E. Yttri (2008). Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect using a multi-observation approach Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8(4), 12823-12886

Reid J. S., S. J. Piketh, R. P. Burger, K. E. Ross, A. L. Walker, R. T. Bruintjes, B. N. Holben, C. Hsu, T. L. Jensen, R.A. Kahn, A. P. Kuciauskas, A. AlMandoos, A. AlMangoosh, S. D. Miller, J. N. Porter, S.-C. Tsay, and D. L. Westphal (2008). An overview of UAE2 flight operations: Observations of Summertime Atmospheric Thermodynamic and Aerosol Profiles of the Southern Arabian Gulf J. Geophys. Res., 113(D14213).

Tian B., D. E. Waliser, R.A. Kahn, Q. Li, Y. L. Yung, T. Tyranowski, I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, O. Torres, and A. Smirnov (2008). Does the Madden-Julian oscillation influence aerosol variability? J. Geophys. Res., 113(D12215).

Bruegge C. J., D. J. Diner, R.A. Kahn, N. Chrien, M. C. Helmlinger, B. J. Gaitley, and W. A. Abdou (2007). The MISR radiometric calibration process Remote Sens. Environ., 107, 2-11

Chylek P., U. Lohmann, M. Dubey, M. Mishchenko, and R.A. Kahn (2007). Limits on climate sensitivity derived from recent satellite and surface observations of aerosol optical depth J. Geophys. Res., 112.

Fox D., E. Gonzales, R.A. Kahn, and J. Martonchik (2007). Near-surface wind speed retrieval from space-based, multi-angle imaging of ocean sun glint patterns Remote Sens. Environ., 107, 223-231

Kahn R.A., W. -H. Li, C. Moroney, D. J. Diner, J. V. Martonchik, and E. Fishbein (2007). Aerosol source plume physical characteristics from space-based multiangle imaging J. Geophys. Res., D11205, 112.

Kahn R.A., M. J. Garay, D. L. Nelson, K. K. Yau, M. A. Bull, B. J. Gaitley, J. V. Martonchik, and R.C. Levy (2007). Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth over dark water from MISR and MODIS: Comparisons with AERONET and implications for climatological studies J. Geophys. Res., D18205, 112.

Liu Y., R.A. Kahn, and P. Koutrakis (2007). Estimating fine particulate matter component concentrations and size distributions using satellite-retrieved fractional aerosol optical depth: Part 1 - Method Development J. Air & Waste Management Assoc., 57, 1351-1359

Liu Y., R.A. Kahn, S. Turquety, R. M. Yantosca, and P. Koutrakis (2007). Estimating fine particulate matter component concentrations and size distributions using satellite-retrieved fractional aerosol optical depth: Part 2 - A case study J. Air & Waste Management Assoc., 57, 1360-1369

Liu Y., M. Franklin, R.A. Kahn, and P. Koutrakis (2007). Using aerosol optical thickness to predict ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in the St. Louis area: A comparison between MISR and MODIS Remote Sens. Environ., 107, 33-44

Lyapustin A., Y. Wang, R.A. Kahn, J. Xiong, A. Ignatov, R. Wolfe, A. Wu, B. Holben, and C. Bruegge (2007). Analysis of MODIS-MISR calibration differences using surface albedo around AERONET sites and cloud reflectance Remote Sens. Environ., 107, 12-21

Mazzoni D., J. A. Logan, D. Diner, R. Kahn, L. Tong, and Q. Li (2007). A data-mining approach to associating MISR smoke plume heights with MODIS fire measurements Rem. Sens. Environ., 107, 138-148

Russell P. B., J. M. Livingston, J. Redemann, B. Schmid, S. Ramirez, J. Eilers, R. Kahn, A. Chu, P. K. Quinn, M. J. Rood, and W. Wang (2007). Multi-grid-cell validation of satellite aerosol property retrievals in INTEX.ITCT.ICARTT 2004 J. Geophys. Res., D12S09, 112.

Sinyuk A., O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, F. -M. Breon, J. Martonchik, R.A. Kahn, D. Diner, E. F. Vermote, Y. J. Kaurman, J. C. Roger, T. Lapyonok, and I. Slutsker (2007). Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface properties from a combination of AERONET and satellite data Remote Sens. Environ., 107, 90-108

Kalashnikova O. V., and R.A. Kahn (2006). Ability of multiangle remote sensing observations to identify and distinguish mineral dust types: Part 2. Sensitivity over dark water J. Geophys. Res., D11207, 111.

Reidmiller D. R., P. V. Hobbs, and R.A. Kahn (2006). Aerosol optical properties and particle size distributions on the east coast of the United States, derived from airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 785-814

Smirnov A., B. N. Holben, S. M. Sakerin, D. M. Kabanov, I. Slutsker, M. Chin, T.L. Diehl, L.A. Remer, R. Kahn, A. Ignatov, L. Liu, M. Mishchenko, T. F. Eck, T.L. Kucsera, D. Giles, and O. V. Kopelevich (2006). Ship-based aerosol optical depth measurements in the Atlantic Ocean: Comparison with satellite retrievals and GOCART model Geophys. Res., L14817, 33.

Stenchikov G., N. Lahoti, P. J. Lioy, P. G. Georgopoulos, D. J. Diner, and R.A. Kahn (2006). Multiscale plume transport from collapse of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 Environ. Fluid Mechan.(5), 6, 425-450

Yu, H., Y.J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. Remer, T. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. Christopher, P. DeCola, R. Kahn, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M.S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takemura, and M. Zhou (2006). A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing Atmos. Chem. Phys, 6, 613-666

Abdou W. A., D. J. Diner, J. V. Martonchik, C. J. Bruegge, R.A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, K. A. Crean, L.A. Remer, and B. Holben (2005). Comparison of coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing Aerosol Robotic Network sites J. Geophys. Res., D10S07, 110.

Diner D. J., B. H. Braswell, R. Davies, N. Gobron, J. Hu, Y. Jin, R.A. Kahn, Y. Knyazikhin, N. Loeb, J. -P. Muller, A. W. Nolin, B. Pinty, C. B. Schaaf, G. Seiz, and J. Stroeve (2005). The value of multi-angle measurements for retrieving structurally and radiatively consistent properties of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces Remote Sens. Environ., 97, 495-518

Diner D. J., J. V. Martonchik, R.A. Kahn, B. Pinty, N. Gobron, D. L. Nelson, and B. N. Holben (2005). Using angular and spectral shape similarity constraints to improve MISR aerosol and surface retrievals over land Remote Sens. Environ., 94, 155-171

Jin Z., T. P. Charlock, W. L. Smith, K. Rutledge, G. Cota, R.A. Kahn, J. Redemann, T. Zhang, D. Rutan, and F. Rose (2005). Radiation measurements and model simulation for CLAMS J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 1053-1071

Kahn R.A., W. -H. Li, J. Martonchik, C. Bruegge, D. Diner, B. Gaitley, W. Abdou, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, S. Smirnov, Z. Jin, and D. Clark (2005). MISR low-light-level calibration, and implications for aerosol retrieval over dark water J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 1032-1062

Kahn R.A., B. Gaitley, J. Martonchik, D. Diner, K. Crean, and B. Holben (2005). MISR global aerosol optical depth validation based on two years of coincident AERONET observations J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10S04

Kalashnikova O. V., R.A. Kahn, I. N. Sokolik, and W. -H. Li (2005). The ability of multi-angle remote sensing observations to identify and distinguish mineral dust types: Part 1. Optical models and retrievals of optically thick plumes J. Geophys. Res..

Myhre G., F. Stordal, M. Johnsrud, D. J. Diner, I. V. Geogdzhayev, J.M. Haywood, B. Holben, T. Holzer-Popp, A. Ignatov, R. Kahn, Y.J. Kaufman, N. Loeb, J. Martonchik, M. I. Mishchenko, N. R. Nalli, L.A. Remer, M. Schroedter-Homscheidt, and et al. (2005). Intercomparison of satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth over ocean during the period September 1997 to December 2000 Atm. Chem. Physics, 5, 1697-1719

Redemann J., B. Schmid, J. A. Eilers, R. Kahn, R.C. Levy, P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, P. V. Hobbs, W. L. Smith, and B. N. Holben (2005). Suborbital measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth and its variability at subsatellite grid scales in support of CLAMS 2001 J. Atmos. Sci., No. 4, 62, 993-1007

Smith W. L., T. P. Charlock, R. Kahn, J. V. Martins, L.A. Remer, and P. V. Hobbs (2005). EOS-terra aerosol and radiative flux validation: An overview of the Chesapeake LIghthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 903-918

Ackerman T. P., A. J. Braverman, D. J. Diner, T.L. Anderson, R.A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, B. A. Wielicki, and B. Yu (2004). Integrating and interpreting aerosol observations and models within the PARAGON framework Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 85, 1523-1533

Bruegge C. J., W. A. Abdou, D. J. Diner, B. J. Gaitley, M. C. Helmlinger, R.A. Kahn, and J. V. Martonchik (2004). Validating the MISR radiometric scale for the ocean aerosol science communities. (103-115). Post-launch calibration of satellite sensors, S. A. Morain and A. M. Budge, Eds. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands.

DiGirolamo L., T. C. Bond. D. Bramer. D. J. Diner, F. Fettinger, R.A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, M. V. Ramana, V. Ramanathan, and P. J. Rasch (2004). Analysis of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol optical depths over greater India during winter 2001-2004 Geophys. Res. Lett., L23115, 31.

Diner D. J., T. P. Ackerman, T.L. Anderson, J. Bosenberg, A. J. Braverman, R. J. Charlson, W. D. Collins, R. Davies, B. N. Holben, C. A. Hostetler, R.A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, R. T. Menzies, M. A. Miller, J. A. Ogren, J. E. Penner, P. J. Rasch, S. E. Schwartz, J. H. Seinfeld, G. L. Stephens, O. Torres, L. D. Travis, B. A. Wielicki, and B. Yu (2004). PARAGON: An Integrated approach for characterizing aerosol climate impacts and environmental interactions Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 85, 1491-1501

Diner D. J., R. T. Menzies, R.A. Kahn, T.L. Anderson, J. Bosenberg, R. J. Charlson, B. N. Holben, C. A. Hostetler, M. A. Miller, J. A. Ogren, G. L. Stephens, O. Torres, B. A. Wielicki, P. J. Rasch, L. D. Travis, and W. D. Collins (2004). Using the PARAGON framework to establish an accurate, consistent, and cohesive long-term aerosol record Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 85, 1535-1548

Diner D. J., R.A. Kahn, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, W. A. Abdou, B. J. Gaitley, M. C. Helmlinger, O. V. Kalashnikova, and W. -H. Li (2004). Refinements to MISR's radiometric calibration and implications for establishing a climate-quality aerosol observing system Proc. SPIE, 5652, 57-65

Kahn R.A., J. A. Ogren, T. P. Ackerman, J. Bosenberg, R. J. Charlson, D. J. Diner, B. N. Holben, R. T. Menzies, M. A. Miller, and J. H. Seinfeld (2004). Aerosol data sources and their roles within PARAGON Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 85, 1511-1522

Kahn R.A., J. Anderson, T.L. Anderson, T. Bates, F. Brechtel, C. M. Carrico, A. Clarke, S. J. Doherty, E. Dutton, R. Flagan, R. Frouin, H. Fukushima, B. Holben, S. Howell, B. Huebert, A. Jefferson, H. Jonsson, O. Kalashnikova, J. Kim, S. -W. Kim, P. Kus, W. -H. Li, J. M. Livingston, C. McNaughton, J. Merrill, S. Mukai, T. Murayama, T. Nakajima, P. Quinn, J. Redemann, M. Rood, P. Russell, I. Sano, B. Schmid, J. Seinfeld, N. Sugimoto, J. Wang, E.J. Welton, J. -G. Won, and S. -C. Yoon (2004). Environmental snapshots from ACE-Asia J. Geophys. Res.jd004339.

Kalashnikova O. V., D. J. Diner, R.A. Kahn, and B. Gaitley (2004). Dust aerosol retrieval results from MISR Proc. SPIE, Fourth Intern. Asia-Pacific Environ. Remt. Sens. Symp., Nov., 8-11

Martonchik J. V., D. J. Diner, R.A. Kahn, B. J. Gaitley, and B. N. Holben (2004). Comparison of MISR and AERONET aerosol optical depths over desert sites Geophys. Res. Lett., 31.

Seinfeld J. H., R.A. Kahn, T.L. Anderson, R. J. Charlson, R. Davies, D. J. Diner, J. A. Ogren, S. E. Schwartz, and B. A. Wielicki (2004). Scientific objectives, measurement needs, and challenges motivating the PARAGON, aerosol initiative Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 85, 1503-1509

Schmid B., J. Redemann, P. B. Russell, P. V. Hobbs, D.L. Hlavka, M.J. McGill, B. N. Holben, E.J. Welton, J. R. Campbell, O. Torres, R.A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, M. C. Helmlinger, D. A. Chu, C. RoblesGonzalez, and G. deLeeuw (2003). Coordinated airborne, spaceborne, and ground-based measurements of massive, thick aerosol layers during the dry season in southern Africa J. Geophys. Res., 108, D13, 8496

Diner D. J., W. A. Abdou, J. E. Conel, K. A. Crean, B. J. Gaitley, M. Helmlinger, R.A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, and S. H. Pilorz (2001). MISR aerosol retrievals over southern Africa during the SAFARI-2000 dry season campaign Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3127-3130

Kahn R.A., P. Banerjee, and D. McDonald (2001). The sensitivity of multiangle imaging to natural mixtures of aerosols over ocean J. Geophys. Res., 219-18,238, 106, 18

Kahn R.A., P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and J. Martonchik (2001). Aerosol properties derived from aircraft multi-angle imaging over Monterey Bay J. Geophys. Res., 977-11,995, 106, 11

Kinne S., B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, G. Zibozdi, U. Lohmann, S. Ghan, R. Easter, M. Chin, P. Ginoux, T. Takemura, I. Tegen, D. Koch, R.A. Kahn, E. Vermote, L. Stowe, O. Torres, M. Mishchenko, I. Geogdzhayev, and A. Hiragushi (2001). How well do aerosol retrievals from satellites and representation in global circulation models match ground-based AERONET aerosol statistics?. (103-158). Remote Sensing and Climate Modeling: Synergies and Limitations, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, M. Beniston and M.M. Verstraete, Eds..

Martonchik J. V., R.A. Kahn, D. J. Diner, and R. A. West (2001). Comments on: Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3275-3276

Pinty B., M. M. Verstraete, N. Gobron, F. Roveda, Y. Govaerts, J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, and R.A. Kahn (2001). Exploitation of surface albedo derived from the Meteosat data to characterize land surface changes. (51-67). Remote Sensing and Climate Modeling: Synergies and Limitations, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, M. Beniston and M.M. Verstraete, Eds..

Pinty B., F. Roveda, M. Verstraete, N. Gobron, Y. Covaerts, J. Martonchik, D. Diner, and R.A. Kahn (2000). Surface Albedo Retrieval from METEOSAT: Part 1: Theory J. Geophys. Res., 099-18,112, 105, 18

Kahn R.A., and A. Braverman (1999). What shall we do with the data we are expecting from upcoming Earth observation satellites? J. Comput. Graph. Statistics, 8, 575-588

Bruegge C., N. Chrien, D. Diner, R.A. Kahn, and J. Martonchik (1998). MISR radiometric uncertainty analyses and their utilization within geophysical retrievals Metrologia, 35, 571-579

Diner D. J., J. C. Beckert, T. H. Reilly, C. J. Bruegge, J. E. Conel, R.A. Kahn, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, J. -P. Muller, R. Myneni, R. J. Sellers, B. Pinty, and M. M. Verstraete (1998). Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) description and experiment overview IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remt. Sensing, 36, 1072-1087

Kahn R.A., P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, and D. Diner (1998). Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth, and to pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean J. Geophys. Res., 195-32,213, 103, 32

Martonchik J. V., D. J. Diner, R.A. Kahn, M. M. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, and T. P. Ackerman (1998). Techniques for the Retrieval of aerosol properties over land ocean using multiangle data IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remt. Sensing, 36, 1212-1227

Abdou W. A., J. V. Martonchik, R.A. Kahn, R. West, and D. Diner (1997). A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures J. Geophys. Res., 883-16,888, 102, 16

Conel J. E., W. C. Ledeboer, S. H. Pilorz, J. V. Martonchik, R.A. Kahn, W. Abdou, C. Bruegge, M. C. Helmlinger, and B. J. Gaitley (1997). Ground-based validation of the EOS Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol retrieval algorithms and science data products Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IGARSS '97. Remote Sensing - A Scientific Vision for Sustainable Development, 1997 IEEE International), 4, 1743-1748

Gierasch P. J., R. M. Goody, R. E. Young, D. Crisp, C. Edwards, R.A. Kahn, D. Rider, A. DelGenio, R. Greeley, A. Hou, C. B. Leovy, D. McCleese, and M. Newman (1997). The general circulation of the Venus atmosphere: An assessment. (459-500). in Venus, S. Bougher, D. Hunten, and R. Philips, Eds., Arizona Press.

Kahn R.A., R. West, D. McDonald, B. Rheingans, and M. I. Mishchenko (1997). Sensitivity of Multi-angle remote sensing observations to aerosol sphericity J. Geophys. Res., 861-16,870, 102, 16

Kahn R.A., and D. Wenkert (1997). Earth Observing System. (211-215). Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences, Ed. J. H. Shirley and R. W. Fairbridge, Chapman and Hall.

Mishchenko M. I., L. D. Travis, R.A. Kahn, and R. A. West (1997). Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids J. Geophys. Res.(D14), 831-16,847, 102, 16

Kahn R.A. (1995). Temperature structure of a Martian local dust storm J. Geophys. Res., 100, 5265-5275

James P. B., R. T. Clancy, S. W. Lee, L. J. Martin, R. B. Singer, E. Smith, R.A. Kahn, and R. W. Zurek (1994). Monitoring Mars with the Hubble Space Telescope: 1990-1991 Icarus, 109, 79-101

Kahn R.A., S. W. Lee, T. Z. Martin, and R. W. Zurek (1992). The Martian Dust Cycle. (1017-1053). Book chapter in Mars, Kieffer et al., Eds., U. Arizona Press.

Kahn R.A., and J. Appleby (1991). Planetary Atmospheres: U.S. National Report to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1987-1990 Reviews of Geophysics, Supplement, 328-337

Kahn R.A. (1990). Ice haze, snow, and the Mars water cycle J. Geophys. Res., 677-14,693, 95, 14

Plaut J., R.A. Kahn, E. Guinness, and R. Arvidson (1988). Accumulation of sedimentary debris in the south polar region of Mars, and implications for climate history Icarus, 76, 357-377

Jaquin F., P. Gierasch, and R.A. Kahn (1986). The vertical structure of limb hazes in the Martian atmosphere Icarus, 68, 442-461

Kahn R.A., E. Guinness, and R. Arvidson (1986). Loss of small-scale surface texture in Viking Orbiter images due to atmospheric aerosols, and implications for inferences about surface history Icarus, 66, 22-38

Kahn R.A., and et al. (1985). The Synoptic-Scale Camera, a PI proposal for the Mars Observer Mission NASA

Kahn R.A. (1985). The Evolution of CO2 on Mars Icarus, 62, 175-190

Kahn R.A. (1984). The spatial and seasonal distribution of Martian clouds, and some meteorological implications J. Geophys. Res., 89, 6672-6688

Kahn R.A. (1983). Some observational constraints on the global-scale wind systems of Mars J. Geophys. Res., 189-10,209, 88, 10

Kahn, R.A. (1982). Deducing the age of the dense Venus atmosphere Icarus, 49, 71-85

Kahn R.A., and P. Gierasch (1982). Long cloud observations on Mars and implications for boundary layer characteristics over slopes J. Geophys. Res., 87, 867-880

Kahn R.A., R. Goody, and J. Pollack (1981). The Martian twilight J. Geophys. Res., 86, 5833-5838

Kahn R.A. (1980). Some properties of the Martian atmosphere obtained from the Viking experiments Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University

Pollack J., ..., R.A. Kahn, and et al. (1979). Properties and effects of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere J. Geophys. Res., 84, 2929-2945

Pollack J., ..., R.A. Kahn, and et al. (1977). Properties of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere as inferred from Viking Lander imaging data J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4479-4496

Mutch T., ..., R.A. Kahn, and et al. (1976). The surface of Mars: The view from the Viking 2 Lander Science, p. 1277, 194.