Profile for Warren Wiscombe

Title: Emeritus
Affiliation: Emeritus
Contact: E-mail
Code 613
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Fax: 301-614-6307

Publications

Updates to our publications records have been put on hold until a new storage and delivery system has been put in place. As a result, this information is currently out of date and does not include the most recent publications. For a more complete listing of publications, please visit the Sciences and Exporation Directorate.


Chiu, J., A. Marshak, C.H. Huang, T. Varnai, R. Hogan, D.M. Giles, B.N. Holben, E. OConnor, Y. Knyazikhin, and W.J. Wiscombe (2012). Cloud droplet size retrievals from zenith radiance measurements: examples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10313-10329.
doi:10.5194/acp-12-10313-2012

Marshak, A., Y. Knyazikhin, C. Chiu, and W. Wiscombe (2012). On spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans., 113(9), 715-720
doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.02.021

Marshak, A., Knyazikhin Y., J. Chiu, and W. Wiscombe (2011). Spectrally Invariant Approximation within Atmospheric Radiative Transfer J. Atmos. Sci., 68(12), 3094-3111
doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-060.1

Yang Y., A. Marshak, S. Palm, T. Varnai, and W. Wiscombe (2011). Cloud Impact on Surface Altimetry from a Spaceborne 532nm Micro-Pulse Photon Counting Lidar: System Modeling for Cloudy and Clear Atmospheres IEEE Trans. Geos. Rem. Sens., 49(12), 4910-4919
doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2011.2153860

Yang, Y., A. Marshak, S. P. Palm, T. Varnai, and W. J. Wiscombe (2011). Cloud Impact on Surface Altimetry from a Spaceborne 532-nm Micropluse Photon-Counting Lidar: System Modeling for Cloudy and Clear Atmospheres Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions, 49(12), 4910-4919
10.1109/TGRS.2011.2153860

Chiu J.C., C.-H. Huang, A. Marshak, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, B. N. Holben, Y. Knyazikhin, and W.J. Wiscombe (2010). Cloud optical depth retrievals from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) cloud mode observations J. Geophys. Res., D14202, 115.
doi:10.1029/2009JD013121

Yang Y., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, W.J. Wiscombe, and P. Yang (2010). Uncertainties in ice sheet altimetry from a space-borne 1064 nm single channel lidar due to undetected thin clouds IEEE Trans. Geos. Rem.Sens., 48(1), 250-259
doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2028335

Chiu J.C., A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, P. Pilewskie, and W. Wiscombe (2009). Physical interpretation of the spectral radiative signatures in the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy regions Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9(4), 1419-1430
doi:10.5194/acp-9-1419-2009

Marshak A., Y. Knyazikhin, J.C. Chiu, and W.J. Wiscombe (2009). Spectral invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges observed by ARM SWS Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(L16802).
doi:10.1029/2009GL039366

Huang D., Y. Liu, and W. Wiscombe (2008). Determination of cloud liquid water distribution with 3D cloud tomography J. Geophys. Res., 113(D13201).
doi:10.1029/2007JD009133

Ottaviani M., K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe (2008). Light reflection from water waves: a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 25(5), 715-728
doi:10.1175/2007JTECHA1049.1

Su W., E. Dutton, T. Charlock, and W. Wiscombe (2008). Performance of commerical radiometers in very low temperature and pressure environments typical of polar regions and the stratosphere: A laboratory study J. Atmos. Oceanic. Tech., 25(4), 558-569
doi:10.1175/2007JTECHA1005.1

Yang Y., A. Marshak, J.C. Chiu, W.J. Wiscombe, S.P. Palm, A. B. Davis, D. A. Spangenberg, L. Nguyen, J. D. Spinhirne, and P. I. Minnis (2008). Retrievals of Thick Cloud Optical Depth from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) by Calibration of Solar Background Signal J. Atmos. Sci., 3527, 65, 3513
doi:10.1175/2008JAS2744.1

Chiu J.C., A. Marshak, W.J. Wiscombe, S. C. Valencia, and E.J. Welton (2007). Cloud optical depth retrievals from solar background IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., No. 3, 4, 456-460
10.1109/LGRS.2007.896722

Turner D. D., A. M. Vogelmann, R. T. Austin, J. C. Barnard, K. Cady-Pereira, J.C. Chiu, S. A. Clough, C. Flynn, M. M. Khaiyer, J. Liljegren, K. Johnson, B. Lin, C. Long, A. Marshak, S. Y. Matrosov, S. A. McFarlane, M. Miller, Q. Min, P. Minnis, Z. Wang, and W. Wiscombe (2007). Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 177-190

Zhang Z., P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and W. Wiscombe (2007). Single-scattering properties of Platonic solids in geometrical-optics regime JQSRT, 106, 595-603

Chiu J.C., A. Marshak, Y. Knyazikhin, W. Wiscombe, H. Barker, J. C. Barnard, and Y. Luo (2006). Remote sensing of cloud properties using ground-based measurements of zenith radiance J. Geophys. Res., D16201, 111.
10.1029/2005JD006843

Knyazikhin Y., A. Marshak, M. Larsen, W. Wiscombe, J. Martonchik, and R. Myneni (2005). Small-scale drop size variability: Impact on estimation of cloud optical properties J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2555-2567

Marshak A., Yu. Knyazikhin, M. L. Larsen, and W.J. Wiscombe (2005). Small-scale drop size variability: Empirical models for drop-size-dependent clustering in clouds J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 551-558

Wiscombe W.J. (2005). Scales, Tools and Reminiscences. In A.M. Marshak and A.B. Davis, Springer (Ed.), 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres. (686pp).

Chiu J.-Y.C., A. Marshak, and W.J. Wiscombe (2004). The effect of surface heterogeneity on cloud absorption estimates Geoph. Res. Lett. (L15105), 31.
10.1029/2004GL020104

Evans K. F., and W.J. Wiscombe (2004). An algorithm for generating stochastic cloud fields from radar profile statistics Atmospheric Research, 72, 263-289
10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.03.016.

Marshak A., Y. Knyazikhin, K. Evans, and W. Wiscombe (2004). The "RED versus NIR" plane to retrieve broken-cloud optical depth from ground-based measurements J. Atmos. Sci.,., 61, 1911-1925

Evans K. F., R. Lawson, P. Zmarzly, OConnor D., and W. Wiscombe (2003). In situ cloud sensing with multiple scattering lidar: Simulations and demonstration J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 20, 1505-1522

Gao B. -C., P. Yang, G. Guo, S. K. Parks, W. Wiscombe, and B. D. Chen (2003). Measurements of water vapor and high clouds over the Tibetan Plateau with the Terra MODIS instrument IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41, 895-900

Gao B. -C., P. Yang, G. Guo, S. K. Park, W.J. Wiscombe, and B. D. Chen (2003). Measurements of water vapor and high clouds over the Tibetan Plateau with the Terra MODIS instrument IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41, 895-900

Lee Y. K., P. Yang, M. I. Mishchenko, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, H. -L. Huang, W.J. Wiscombe, and A. J. Baran (2003). On the use of circular cylinders as surrogates for hexagonal pristine ice crystals in scattering calculations at infrared wavelengths Appl. Opt., 42, 2653-2664

Yang P., M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W.J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, and M. I. Mishchenko (2003). Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: Single-scattering calculation and radiative sensitivity study J. Geophys. Res. (D18), 4569, 108.
10.1029/2002JD003291

Gao B. -C., P. Yang, W. Han, R. -R. Li, and W. Wiscombe (2002). An algorithm using visible and 1.38-m channels to retrieve cirrus cloud reflectances from aircraft and satellite data IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 40, 1659-1668

Knyazikhin Y., A. Marshak, W. Wiscombe, J. Martonchick, and R. Myneni (2002). A missing solution to the transport equation and its effect on estimation of cloud absorptive properties J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3572-3585

Yang P., B. C. Gao, W.J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, S.E. Platnick, H. L. Huang, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, D. Winker, S.C. Tsay, and S. K. Park (2002). Inherent amd apparent scattering properties of coated or uncoated spheres embedded in an absorbing host medium Appl. Opt., 41, 2740-2759

Gerber H., J. Jensen, A. Davis, A. Marshak, and W. Wiscombe (2001). Spectral density of cloud liquid water content at high frequencies J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 497-503

Yang P., B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, W.J. Wiscombe, M. I. Mishchenko, D. M. Winker, and S. L. Nasiri (2001). Asymptotic solutions for optical properties of large particles with strong absorption Appl. Opt., 40, 1532-1547

Yang P., B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, W.J. Wiscombe, Y. X. Hu, S. L. Nasiri, P. F. Soulen, A. J. Heymsfield, G. M. McFarquhar, and L. M. Miloshevich (2001). Sensitivity of cirrus bidirectional reflectance to vertical inhomogeneity of ice crystal habits and size distributions for two Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bands J. Geophys. Res., 106, 17267-17291

Yang P., B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W.J. Wiscombe, S.C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, and S. L. Nasiri (2001). Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8-13 microns) spectral region J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans., 70, 473-504

Esper J., P. Panetta, M. Ryschkewitsch, W. Wiscombe, and S. Neeck (2000). NASA/GSFC nano-satellite technology for Earth Science Missions Acta Astronautica, 46, 287-296

Marshak A., Yu. Knyazikhin, A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and P. Pilewskie (2000). Cloud vegetation interaction: Use of Normalized Difference Cloud Index for estimation of cloud optical thickness Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1695-1698

Davis A., A. Marshak, H. Gerber, and W. Wiscombe (1999). Horizontal structure of marine boundary-layer clouds from cm-to km scales J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6123-6144

Marshak A., L. Oreopoulos, A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and R. Cahalan (1999). Horizontal radiative fluxes in clouds and accuracy of the Independent Pixel Approximation at absorbing wavelengths Geophys. Res. Lett., 11, 1585-1588

Marshak A., W. Wiscombe, A. Davis, L. Oreopoulos, and R. Cahalan (1999). On the removal of the effect of horizontal fluxes in two-aircraft measurements of cloud absorption Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 2153-2170

Davis A., A. Marshak, R. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1998). Insight into three-dimensional radiation transport from diffusion theory, application to the cloudy atmosphere. (111-139). Radiative Transfer, Ed. M. P. Mengue, Begell House, Inc., NY.

Gao B. -C., Y. Kaufman, W. Han, and W. Wiscombe (1998). Correction of thin cirrus path radiances in the 0.4-1 micron spectral region using the Sensitive 1.375 Micron Cirrus Detecting Channel J. Geophys. Res., 103, 32169-32176

Marshak A., A. Davis, R. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1998). Nonlocal Independent Pixel Approximation, direct and inverse problems IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36, 192-205

Marshak A., A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and R. Cahalan (1998). Radiative effects of sub-mean-free-path liquid water variability observed in stratiform clouds J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 103, 19557-19567

Marshak A., A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, W. Ridgway, and R. Cahalan (1998). Biases in shortwave column absorption in the presence of fractal clouds J. Climate, 11, 431-446

Cahalan R.F., A. Davis, A. Marshak, D. Silberstein, and W. Wiscombe (1997). Cloud macrostructure and radiation Remote Sensing A Scientific Vision for Sustainable Development: LC 97-70575, ISBN 0-7803-3839-1 F01, 41-44

Davis A., A. Marshak, R.F. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1997). Interactions, solar and Laser beams in stratus clouds, fractals and multifractals in climate and remote sensing studies Fractals, 5, 129-166

Davis A., A. Marshak, W. Wiscombe, and R.F. Cahalan (1997). Evidence for net horizontal radiative fluxes in marine stratocumulus.. (809-812). IRS'96 Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith and K. Stamnes, Eds., Deepak Publ..

Davis A., D. Winker, A. Marshak, J. Spinhurne, R. Cahalan, S. Love, S. Melfi, and W. Wiscombe (1997). Retrieval of physical and optical cloud thicknesses from space-borne and wide-angle Lidar Adv. Atmos. Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux and U. Wadinger, Eds. Springer-Verlag, 193-196

Davis A., A. Marshak, R.F. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1997). The Landsat scale break in stratocumulus as a three-dimensional radiative transfer effect: Implications for cloud remote sensing J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 241-260

Marshak A., A. Davis, R. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1997). Physical simulation of high-resolution satellite images for fractal cloud model. (301-310). Fractal Frontiers. M. M. Novak and T. G. Dewey, Eds., World Scientific.

Marshak A., A. Davis, R. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1997). The effect of horizontal fluxes on cloud absorption estimates based on simulated two-aircraft measurements of fractal clouds. IRS'96: Current problems in atmospheric radiation. (415-418). W. L. Smith and K. Stamnes, Eds., Deepak Publ..

Marshak A., A. Davis, R.F. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1997). Nonlocal Independent Pixel Approximation for computing radiation fields of inhomogeneous clouds. IRS'96: Current problems in atmospheric radiation. (139-142). W. L. Smith and K. Stamnes, Eds., Deepak Publ..

Marshak A., A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and R. Cahalan (1997). Inhomogeneity effects on cloud shortwave absorption measurements: Two-aircraft simulations J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16619-16637

Marshak A., A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and R.F. Cahalan (1997). Scale-invariance of liquid water distributions in marine stratocumulus. II. Multifractal properties and intermittency issues J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1423-1444

Davis A., A. Marshak, W. Wiscombe, and R.F. Cahalan (1996). Multifractal characterizations of intermittency in nonstionary geophysical signals and fields. (97-158). Nonstationary Random Processes and Their Applications, G. Trevino, Ed., World Scientific.

Davis A., A. Marshak, W. Wiscombe, and R.F. Cahalan (1996). Scale-invariance of liquid water distributions in marine stratocumulus. I. Spectral properties and stationarity issues J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 1538-1558

Ellingson R., and W. Wiscombe (1996). The Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE): Project description and sample results Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., pages unknown, 77.

Marshak A., A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and G. Titov (1995). The verisimilitude of the Independent Pixel Approximation used in cloud remote sensing Remote Sens. Environ., 52, 72-78

Marshak A., A. Davis, W. Wiscombe, and R.F. Cahalan (1995). Radiative smoothing in fractal clouds J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 100, 26247-26261

Wiscombe W. (1995). An absorbing mystery Nature, 376, 466-467

Cahalan R.F., W. Ridgway, W.J. Wiscombe, Harshvardhan, and S. Gollmer (1994). Independent pixel and Monte Carlo estimates of stratocumulus albedo J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 3776-3790

Cahalan R.F., W. Ridgway, W.J. Wiscombe, T.L. Bell, and J. B. Snider (1994). The albedo of fractal stratocumulus clouds J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2434-2455

Davis A., A. Marshak, and W. Wiscombe (1994). Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of non-stationary and/or intermittent geophysical signals. Wavelets in Geophysics. (249-298). E. Foufoula-Georgiou and P. Kumar, Eds., Academic Press.

Davis A., A. Marshak, W.J. Wiscombe, and R.F. Cahalan (1994). Multifractal characterizations of non-stationarity and intermittency in geophysical fields: Observed, retrieved, or simulated J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8055-8072

Gao B. -C., and W. Wiscombe (1994). Surface-induced brightness temperature variations and their effects on detecting thin cirrus clouds using IR emission channels in the 8-12 mm region J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 568-570

Marshak A., A. Davis, R.F. Cahalan, and W.J. Wiscombe (1994). Bounded Cascade Models as non-stationary multifractals Phys. Rev.E49, 55-69

Cahalan R.F., and W.J. Wiscombe (1993). Impact of cloud structure on climate. (120-124). Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation. A. Deepak Publishing.

Davis A., A. Marshak, and W. Wiscombe (1993). Bi-multifractal analysis and multi-affine modeling of non-stationary geophysical processes: Application to turbulence and clouds Fractals, 3, 560-567

Gao B. -C., A. Goetz, and W. Wiscombe (1993). Cirrus cloud detection from airborne imaging spectrometer data using the 1.38 micron water vapor band Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 301-304

Marshak A., A. Davis, R. Cahalan, and W. Wiscombe (1993). Multi-singular and multi-affine properties of Bounded Cascade Models Fractals, 3, 702-710

Fiedler-Ferrari N., H. Nussenzveig, and W. Wiscombe (1991). Theory of near-critical angle scattering from a curved interface Phys. Rev.A43, 1005-1038

Nussenzveig H., and W. Wiscombe (1991). Complex angular momentum approximation to hard-core scattering Phys. Rev.A43, 2093-2112

Warren S., W. Wiscombe, and J. Firestone (1990). Spectral albedo and emissivity of CO2 in Martian polar caps: Model results J. Geophys. Res., 95, 14717-14741

Wiscombe W. (1990). Principles of Numerical Modeling with Applications to Atmospheric Radiation. Course on Radiation as It Relates to Climate. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, pages unknown.

Cahalan R.F., M. Nestler, W. Ridgway, W.J. Wiscombe, and T. Bell (1989). Marine stratocumulus spatial structure. (19-25). Proc. Fourth Int. Conf. Stat. Clim., IMSC.

Mugnai A., and W. Wiscombe (1989). Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles III: Variability of angular scattering patterns Appl. Opt., 28, 3061-3073

Luther F., R. Ellingson, Y. Fouquart, S. Fels, N. Scott, and W. Wiscombe (1988). Intercomparison of radiation codes in climate models (ICRCCM): Longwave clear sky results Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69, 40-48

Stamnes K., S.C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera (1988). Numerically stable algorithm for Discrete-Ordinate-Method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media Appl. Opt., 27, 2502-2509

Wiscombe W., and A. Mugnai (1988). Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles II: Means of angular scattering patterns Appl. Opt., 27, 2405-2421

Nussenzveig H., and W. Wiscombe (1987). Diffraction as tunneling Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 1667-1671

Mugnai A., and W. Wiscombe (1986). Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles. I: Cross sections, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and backscattered fraction Appl. Opt., 25, 1235-1244

Prabhakara C., D. A. Short, W. Wiscombe, R. S. Fraser, and B. Vollmer (1986). Rainfall over oceans inferred from Nimbus-7 SMMR, application to 1982-83 El Nino J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 25, 1464-1474

Wiscombe W., and R. Welch (1986). Further comments on the effects of large drops in clouds J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 401-407

Warren S., and W. Wiscombe (1985). Dirty snow after nuclear war Nature, 313, 467-470

Wiscombe W., and V. Ramanathan (1985). The role of radiation and other renascent subfields in atmospheric science Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 66, 1278-1287

Wiscombe W., R. Welch, and W. Hall (1984). The effect of very large drops on cloud absorption I. Parcel models J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1336-1355

Hoffert M., B. Flannery, A. Callegari, C. Hsieh, and W. Wiscombe (1983). Evaporation-limited tropical temperatures as a constraint on climate sensitivity J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1659-1668

Wiscombe W. (1983). Atmospheric radiation: 1975-1983 Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 21, 997-1021

Wiscombe W., and S. Warren (1981). Comment on 'Radiative Properties of Snow for Clear Sky Solar Radiation' Cold Reg. Sci. Tech., 5, 177-180

Mugnai A., and W. Wiscombe (1980). Scattering of radiation by moderately nonspherical particles J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1291-1307

Nussenzveig H., and W. Wiscombe (1980). Forward optical Glory Optics Lett., 5, 455-457

Nussenzveig H., and W. Wiscombe (1980). Efficiency factors in Mie scattering Phys. Rev. Lett., 45, 1490-1494

Wiscombe W. (1980). Improved Mie scattering algorithms Appl. Opt., 19, 1505-1509

Wiscombe W., and A. Mugnai (1980). Exact calculations of scattering from moderately-nonspherical tn-particles: Comparisons with equivalent spheres. Proc. Workshop Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, Ed., Plenum Publishing Corp NY, pages unknown.

Wiscombe W., and S. Warren (1980). A model for the spectral albedo of snow I. Pure snow J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2712-2733

Wiscombe W., and S. Warren (1980). A model for the spectral albedo of snow II. Snow containing atmospheric aerosols J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2734-2745

Wiscombe W. (1977). Doubling Initialization revisited J. Quant. Spectr. and Rad. Trans., 18, 245-248

Wiscombe W. (1977). Author's reply J. Quant. Spectr. and Rad. Trans., p. 251, 18.

Wiscombe W. (1977). The Delta-M Method: Rapid yet accurate radiative flux calculations for strongly asymmetric phase functions J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1408-1422

Wiscombe W., and J. Evans (1977). Exponential-sum fitting of radiative transmission functions J. Comp. Phys., 24, 416-444

Wiscombe W., and J. Joseph (1977). The range of validity of the Eddington approximation Icarus, 32, 362-377

Wiscombe W., and P. Chylek (1977). Mie scattering between any two angles J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 67, 572-573

Joseph J., W. Wiscombe, and J. Weinman (1976). The Delta-Eddington Approximation for radiative flux transfer J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2452-2459

Wiscombe W. (1976). Extension of the Doubling Method to inhomogeneous sources J. Quant. Spectr. and Rad. Trans., 16, 477-489

Wiscombe W. (1976). On initialization, error and flux conservation in the Doubling Method J. Quant. Spectr. and Rad. Trans., 16, 637-658

Wiscombe W., and G. Grams (1976). The backscattered fraction in Two-Stream Approximations J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2440-2451

Wiscombe W. (1975). Solar radiation calculations for Arctic summer stratus conditions. Climate of the Arctic, Weller and Bowling, Eds., University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, Alaska, pages unknown.